References & Related Research

The following references are either cited in this report or helped to inform it.

Abu-Lughod, L. (2005). Dramas of nationhood: The politics of television in Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Adams, M. (2014). Music and the play of power in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, 11(1), 129–132.

Akdenizli, B. (2018). Twitter diplomacy in the GCC: How foreign ministers of the region are using social media. In Y. R. Kamalipour (Ed.), Global discourse in fractured times: Perspectives on journalism. Media: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Al-Jenaibi, B. (2011). The use of social media in the United Arab Emirates: An initial study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(1), 87–100.

Ayyad, K. (2011). Internet usage vs. traditional media usage among university students in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 4(1), 41–61.

Aziz, M. A. (2010). Arab music videos and their implications for Arab music and media. In Collected Work: Music and media in the Arab world (pp. 77–90).

Berg, M. (2017). The importance of cultural proximity in the success of Turkish dramas in Qatar. International Journal of Communication, 11, 3415–3430.

Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: A meta-analysis of current research. Information, Communication & Society, 18(5), 524–538.

Christensen, M. (2013). New media geographies and the Middle East. Television & New Media, 14(4), 267–270.

Cole, J., Suman, M., Schramm, P., & Zhou, L. (2015). The World Internet Project. World Internet Project, University of Southern California.

Cottle, S. (2011). Media and the Arab uprisings of. Journalism, 12(5), 647–659.

Courmont, B., & Clément, P. A. (2014). When geopolitics meets the game industry: A study of Arabic video games and what they teachuUs. Hemispheres, 29(1), 31.

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. (2017). Media use in the Middle East. Northwestern University in Qatar. Retrieved from

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. (2016). Media use in the Middle East: A six-nation survey. Northwestern University in Qatar.

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. W. (2015). Media use in the Middle East: A six-nation survey. Northwestern University in Qatar.

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. W. (2014). Entertainment media use in the Middle East: A six-nation survey. Northwestern University in Qatar.

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. W. (2013). Media use in the Middle East: An eight-nation survey. Northwestern University in Qatar.

Downey, A. (Ed.). (2014). Uncommon grounds: New media and critical practices in North Africa and the Middle East. IB Tauris.

Ess, C., & Sudweeks, F. (2003). Technologies of despair and hope: Liberatory potentials and practices of CMC in the Middle East. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8(2).

Frishkopf, M. (2010). The controversy over satellite music television in contemporary Egypt. In M. Frishkopf (Ed.), Music and media in the Arab world (pp. 173–217). American University in Cairo Press.

Gallup. (2016). Gallup Poll Social Series: Governance. Retrieved from

Hroub, K. (2012). Religious broadcasting in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press.

Insights, E. (2013). Edelman global entertainment survey. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare. net/ EdelmanInsights/2013-edelman-global- entertainment-survey

Ipsos. (2013). Online audience measurement in the Arab world. Retrieved from

Jones, C. W., Mitchell, J. S., & Martin, J. D. (2017, month). Gender and media: A nationally representative six-country survey experiment. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Political Science Association, City, State

Kamal, S., & Chu, S. C. (2012). Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors toward advertising on social media in the Middle East: A study of young consumers in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 7(3), 237–259.

Khalil, J. F. (2015). An Arab perspective. digital technology and the future of broadcasting: Global. Perspectives, 109,.

Khoury, M. (2005). Origins and patterns in the discourse of new Arab cinema. Arab Studies Quarterly, 27(1/2), 1–20.

Kraidy, M. (2010). Reality television and Arab politics: Contention in public life. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kraidy, M., & J. K. (2009). Arab television industries. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Kraidy, M. M. (2012). Contention and circulation in the digital Middle East: Music video as catalyst. Television &, 1527476412463450.

Lahlali, E. M. (2016). Arab media discourse: Breaking taboos. Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies, 13(14).

Limbrick, P. (2012). Cultural encounters in the Arab world: On media, the modern, and the everyday. Cinema Journal, 52(1), 173–175.

Lynch, M. (2015). How the media trashed the transitions. Journal of Democracy, 26(4), 90–99.

Mahajan, V., & Zehr, D. (2012). The Arab world unbound: Tapping into the power of 350 million consumers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Martin, J. D., Martins, R. J., & Naqvi, S. S. (2016). Media use predictors of online political efficacy among internet users in five Arab countries. Information, Communication & Society, 21, 1–18.

Martin, J. D., Martins, R. J., & Naqvi, S. S. (2017). Do Arabs really read less? “cultural tools” and “more knowledgeable others” as determinants of book reliance in six Arab countries. International Journal of Communication, 11, 3374–3393.

Martin, J. D., Martins, R. J., & Wood, R. (2016). Desire for cultural preservation as a predictor of support for entertainment media censorship in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the UAE. International Journal of Communication, 10, 3400–3422.

Martin, J. D., N., S., S., & Schoenbach, K. (2019). (in press). Testing stereotypes about the Arab online public sphere: Predictors of concerns about internet surveillance in five Arab countries. New Media & Society, 21.

Martin, J. D., & Schoenbach, K. (2016). Predictors of blogging activity in six Arab countries. International Communication Gazette, 78(8), 733–754.

Matar, D. (2007). Heya TV: A feminist counterpublic for Arab women? comparative studies of South Asia, Africa. & the Middle East, 27(3), 513–524.

Nötzold, K., & Pies, J. (2010). “Going local” as a strategy to enter Arab national television markets: Examples from Lebanon and Jordan. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 3(1), 43–62.

Pavlik, J. V., Dennis, E. E., Mersey, R. D., & Gengler, J. (Forthcoming). Conducting Research on the World’s Mediascape: Principles and Practices. Media and Communication, 7(1).

Pavlik, J. V., Dennis, E. E., Mersey, R. D., & Gengler,  and J. (2018). Mobile disruptions in the Middle East: Lessons from Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region in mobile media content Innovation (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.

Sabry, T. (2012). Arab cultural studies: Mapping the field. New York: I.B.Tauris.

Sakr, N. (2007). Arab television today. New York: I.B. Tauris.

Sakr, N. (Ed.). (2015). Arab media moguls: Community, legitimacy and public life. New York: IB Tauris.

Schoenbach, K. (2018). Season of birth and media use. Communications: The European Journal of Communication, 10(1515), 2017–0049.

Schoenbach, K., Saeed, M., & Wood, R. (2018). Audience responses to online video in MENA: New favorite genres or just more of the same as on television? International Communication Gazette.

Schoenbach, K., Wood, R., & Saeed, M. (2016). Media industries in the Middle East. Northwestern University. Retrieved from

Shaw, A. (2010). Beyond comparison: Analysis of video games in the Middle East. Global Media Journal: American Edition, 9(16), 1–28.

Telhami, S. (2013). The world through Arab eyes: Arab public opinion and the reshaping of the Middle East. New York: Basic Books.

Wilson, C., & Dunn, A. (2011). The Arab Spring: Digital media in the Egyptian revolution. International Journal of Communication, 5, 25.

Wolfsfeld, G., Segev, E., & Sheafer, T. (2013). Social media and the Arab Spring: Politics comes first. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 115–137.

Yanarda ̆go ̆glu, E., & Karam, I. (2013). The fever that hit Arab satellite television: Audience perceptions of Turkish TV series. In Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power (Vol. 20, pp. 561–79).

Zayani, M. (2011). Media, popular culture and contestatory politics in the contemporary Middle East. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 7(1), 85–99.